The impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and specific learning disorders on academic performance in Spanish children from a low-middle- and a high-income population

Gemma Español-Martín, Mireia Pagerols, Raquel Prat, Cristina Rivas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Miquel Casas Brugué, Rosa Bosch

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8 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Past research has demonstrated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific learning disorders (SLD), and socioeconomic status (SES) affect a host of educational outcomes. However, there are no studies examining whether SES moderates the association between these neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) and the academic achievement of children and adolescents. The present investigation examined the impact of ADHD and SLD on academic performance in 1,287 Spanish students aged 5-17 from a low-middle (LM)- and a high-income population, when adjusted for comorbidity and demographic factors that may influence educational functioning. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding demographic data along with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Additionally, teachers provided information on learning difficulties trough the Protocol for Detection and Management of Dyslexia. Teacher's Version. Academic performance across multiple domains (i.e., first language, foreign language, mathematics) was obtained from school records. ND were determined using standardized diagnostic methods based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. To examine the effects of ADHD and SLD on academic achievement and the potential moderating role of SES, a series of ordinal logistic regressions were conducted. Emotional/behavioral problems, learning difficulties, and ND were more frequent among individuals from the LM-income population. After controlling for gender, age, parental divorce/separation, grade retention, frequency of screen use, and daily meals, both ADHD and SLD were associated with worse educational outcomes. Lower SES also increased the risk for academic impairment, although the interactions with ADHD or SLD were not significant. These findings indicate that ADHD and SLD exert a pervasive impact on academic performance across different socioeconomic backgrounds. Therefore, early detection and effective intervention strategies aimed at students with these ND are crucial to improve their educational functioning and mitigate the negative consequences related to academic problems.
Idioma originalInglés
Número de páginas15
PublicaciónFrontiers in Psychiatry
Volumen14
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 12 abr 2023

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