Influence of the circadian cycle, sex and production stage on the reference values of parameters related to stress and pathology in porcine saliva

Y. Saco, R. Peña, M. Matas-Quintanilla, F. J. Ibáñez-López, M. Piñeiro, J. Sotillo, A. Bassols, A. M. Gutiérrez*

*Autor correspondiente de este trabajo

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículoInvestigaciónrevisión exhaustiva

1 Cita (Scopus)


Background: The concentration of biomarkers in saliva could be influenced by several factors not related to the specific condition under analyses, which should be considered for proper clinical interpretation. In the present study, the circadian rhythm of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), Pig-MAP, S100A12, Cu, Zn, Adenosine deaminase (ADA), total protein (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), cortisol and α-amylase in saliva of 20 female and 20 male pigs was investigated. Moreover, the influence of sex and production phase (post-weaning, fattening and finishing) on the concentrations of biomarkers in a total of 414 healthy pigs was studied and the reference intervals for all salivary biomarkers were calculated accordingly. Results: All parameters except Pig-MAP, OSI and α-amylase varied significantly along the daytime, and most of them peak around early afternoon (13–15 h). The cosinor analysis described the temporal dynamics of circadian rhythms for all parameters. The range values showed differences between male and female pigs in 8 out of the 13 biomarkers, with higher concentrations in females in comparison to male pigs. The influence of the production phase on the salivary concentrations was observed for all the biomarkers. The highest concentrations were observed for Pig-MAP, S100A12 and α-amylase in post-weaning animals, for TP in growing pigs and for OSI in finishing animals. Most of the sex-influenced biomarkers showed the highest concentrations at growing stages with some exceptions such as ADA or Hp that showed the peak at finishing and post-weaning stages respectively. Conclusions: It is necessary to establish the optimal daytime for routine saliva sampling to avoid circadian variations and for that end, the time interval between 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. is highly recommended. The factors sex and production phase influence the concentration of biomarkers and should be considered for proper biomarker interpretation. The reference intervals presented here for each salivary biomarker will help to correctly interpret the results of these analytes and contribute to the use of saliva as a non-invasive sample for the diagnosis and monitoring of the health status of swine farms.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo42
Número de páginas15
PublicaciónPorcine health management
EstadoPublicada - dic 2023


Profundice en los temas de investigación de 'Influence of the circadian cycle, sex and production stage on the reference values of parameters related to stress and pathology in porcine saliva'. En conjunto forman una huella única.

Citar esto