Immunoregulatory and/or Anti-inflammatory Agents for the Management of Core and Associated Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Narrative Review of Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Gara Arteaga-Henríquez, Laura Gisbert-Gustemps, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículoInvestigaciónrevisión exhaustiva

9 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition with a so far poorly understood underlying pathogenesis, and few effective therapies for core symptoms. Accumulating evidence supports an association between ASD and immune/inflammatory processes, arising as a possible pathway for new drug intervention. However, current literature on the efficacy of immunoregulatory/anti-inflammatory interventions on ASD symptoms is still limited. The aim of this narrative review was to summarize and discuss the latest evidence on the use of immunoregulatory and/or anti-inflammatory agents for the management of this condition. During the last 10 years, several randomized, placebo-controlled trials on the effectiveness of (add-on) treatment with prednisolone, pregnenolone, celecoxib, minocycline, N -acetylcysteine (NAC), sulforaphane (SFN), and/or omega-3 fatty acids have been performed. Overall, a beneficial effect of prednisolone, pregnenolone, celecoxib, and/or omega-3 fatty acids on several core symptoms, such as stereotyped behavior, was found. (Add-on) treatment with prednisolone, pregnenolone, celecoxib, minocycline, NAC, SFN, and/or omega-3 fatty acids was also associated with a significantly higher improvement in other symptoms, such as irritability, hyperactivity, and/or lethargy when compared with placebo. The mechanisms by which these agents exert their action and improve symptoms of ASD are not fully understood. Interestingly, studies have suggested that all these agents may suppress microglial/monocyte proinflammatory activation and also restore several immune cell imbalances (e.g., T regulatory/T helper-17 cell imbalances), decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-17A, both in the blood and in the brain of individuals with ASD. Although encouraging, the performance of larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, including more homogeneous populations, dosages, and longer periods of follow-up, are urgently needed in order to confirm the findings and to provide stronger evidence.
Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)215-229
Número de páginas15
PublicaciónCNS Drugs
Volumen37
DOI
EstadoPublicada - mar 2023

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