Confirmation of preeclampsia-like syndrome induced by severe COVID-19 : An Observational Study

Manel Mendoza, Elena Carreras Moratonas, Berta Serrano, Erika Bonacina, Itziar Garcia-Ruiz, Pablo Garcia Manau, Paula Garcia Aguilar, Judit Gil, Mireia Armengol Alsina, Nuria Fernández Hidalgo, Elena Sulleiro Igual, Laura Castillo Ribelles, Nerea Maiz, Anna Suy

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Resumen

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, some studies have reported an increased preeclampsia (PE) incidence in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several explanations for this association have been proposed, including a preeclampsia-like syndrome induced by severe COVID-19. This syndrome was described in a small case series and has not been confirmed in larger studies and its impact in perinatal outcomes has not been studied. The aim of this study was to confirm the preeclampsia-like syndrome due to COVID-19 and to investigate its implications in pregnancy outcomes and prognosis. This was a prospective, observational study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Inclusion criteria were pregnant women admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for severe pneumonia due to COVID-19. They were classified in three groups based on clinical and laboratory findings: PE, PE-like syndrome, and women without PE features. The three cohorts were analyzed and compared at three different times: before, during and after severe pneumonia. The main outcomes were incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes and signs and symptoms of PE, such as hypertension, proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and increased angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio [sFlt-1/PlGF]). A total of 106 women were admitted to Intensive Care Unit due to severe pneumonia and 68 were included in the study. Of those, 53 (50.0%) did not meet the diagnostic criteria for PE and remained pregnant after pneumonia (non-PE), seven (6.6%) met the diagnostic criteria for PE, had abnormal (>38) sFlt-1/PlGF (PE) and delivered during severe pneumonia, and eight (7.5%) met the diagnostic criteria for PE, had normal (≤38) sFlt-1/PlGF (PE-like) and did not deliver during pneumonia. Despite not having delivered, most PE-related features improved after severe pneumonia in women with PE-like syndrome. Women with PE had significantly poorer outcomes than women with PE-like syndrome or without PE. More than 50% of women with severe COVID-19 and diagnostic criteria for PE may not be PE but a PE-like syndrome, which may affect up to 7.5% of women with severe COVID-19. PE-like syndrome might have similar perinatal outcomes to those of normotensive women with severe pneumonia due to COVID-19. For these reasons, PE-like syndrome should be excluded by using sFlt-1/PlGF in future research and before making clinical decisions.
Idioma originalInglés
Número de páginas9
PublicaciónAmerican journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
Volumen5
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 2022

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