This doctoral thesis is centred on an analysis of the growth and trajectory of the neighbourhood movement in Spain during late Francoism and the transition. The time period of the research is from the immediate post-war period, through to the resurgence of mass migration. The study continues with the Francoist response to this phenomenon and its associated urban expansion through to the period of economic development and political change. The first part of the thesis deals in particular with the model of urban development imposed during Francoism. This begins with the first phase during the long post-war period which was characterised by the repression of migrations and a suburbanisation of large Spanish cities. A second phase, which occurred at the same time as rapid economic development, saw aggressive intervention in urban areas through the imposition of policies developed to serve the needs of a protected and brutal form of capitalism in the 1960s and 1970s. The result of both of these processes was the creation of chaotic cities, which were socially segregated and completely lacking in basic infrastructure, provision and services. The action and discourse of the neighbourhood associations appeared in opposition to this city model. A number of elements account for the appearance of this movement. There is the construction of social networks based on solidarity, reciprocity and mutual aid in the immediate post-war period. Later there is the intervention of some Catholic parishes in the processes of neighbourhood organisation and mobilisation. The discourses and practices of the anti-Francoist parties and groups in this area have been analysed, paying special attention to aspects of gender in the early years of the movement. Finally, the neighbourhood associations are firmly located in the process of political change by means of analysis of their profound anti-Francoist character and nature as a social movement. They became the preferred terrain for mobilisation for both the popular and working classes. They were capable, by joining their forces to other social movements and groupings, to challenge Francoism and to impact on and determine the transition.