La reimplantación de la compañía de Jesús en Filipinas: de la restauración a la revolución Filipina (1815-1898)

Student thesis: Doctoral thesis


This doctoral thesis is inserted in the confluence of several historiographic trends that have gained interest in the last decades in Spain. These are, on the one hand, the study of the economic, social, political and cultural relations of the Hispanic colonial space of the Pacific -that is, of Philippine Islands- which constituted the last colonial edge of the Hispanic Empire. Especially since the celebration of the fourth centenary of the discovery of America, research on the relations between the old metropolis and its colonies has been revitalized, both in the American territories and in the Pacific islands. On the other hand, in the last decades the studies on the Society of Jesus have stopped being limited to the historians of the own order, always pressured by this one, so that researchers of diverse specialties have deepened in their history and trajectory and in their influence in the historical processes of early modern times, fleeing from the simplistic and apologetic vision of the Jesuit authors. This new look is integrated into the renewal of cultural and religious history in our country, which has focused on the analysis of discourses and cultural practices, in our case of religious orders in the Hispanic world, where the Jesuits stand out. The Ignatians, as religious, cultural and also political agents of the border areas, have always constituted exceptional spectators of the interaction between the metropolis and its colonies. However, both in the study of the Ignatian Institute and in the Philippine colonial world there is a gap in the nineteenth century, that chronological space between modernity and contemporaneity that, historiographically, has been orphan. It is for this reason that our geo-chronological framework is the nineteenth-century Philippines, where the Society of Jesus returned after almost a century of absence. The objective of this thesis is to trace the trajectory of the Ignatian Institute in the Philippine Islands since its return in 1859 until the end of Spanish sovereignty over the islands in 1898. The uniqueness of the study lies in the third historiographic current in which this is inserted work: the so-called “history of emotions”, a new theoretical and methodological approach still under development, but in expansion, especially since the turn of the century. The thesis is not focused on the institutional discourse of the Company, but on the particular perception that the workers of the order had of the reimplantation of the corporation in the Philippines and of its subsequent evolution, and especially in the personal and emotional dimension. Thus, given that there is no compilation of the Society of Jesus in the nineteenth-century Philippine Islands, the transit of the order in the islands has been reflected, with its educational work in the Ateneo and the Escuela Normal de Maestros in Manila, its scientific advances in the capital’s Observatory, its missionary deployment on the island of Mindanao and its political position and influence on the Philippine Revolution. But, above all, it has been prioritized the reconstruction of the life experience of those Jesuits in the Philippines and especially of each individual. The foundation of the study is the handwritten correspondence of those nineteenth century Jesuit missionaries, which are preserved in the Historical Archive of the Society of Jesus in Catalonia. Far from the bucolic version offered by the official works of the religious order, the original uncensored letters discover a silenced reality that demystifies the traditional representation of the “perfect Jesuit” and that demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous, plural, conflictive and riddled community of weaknesses, fears, doubts and thoughts inadequate to his condition, completely affected by the hard life in the missions.
Date of Award28 Nov 2018
Original languageSpanish
SupervisorJose Luis Betran Moya (Director)


  • Jesuits
  • Philippine
  • Restoration

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