La construcción ideológica del currículum chileno de Historia y Ciencias Sociales

Student thesis: Doctoral thesis

Abstract

This doctoral dissertation attempts to systematize and interpret the ideological construction of the chilean Social Studies curriculum, during the last two decades. To this end, it first identifies the different actors and agencies who actually partake in the process of discussion and negotiation of the common curriculum in this subject, as well as the main fields of influence from which they come. Along with that, it characterize the scenarios where this process of discussion and negotiation occurs. Then, in second place, , it proposes a scheme or model of Curricular Ideologies in Social Studies. These ideologies are understood as schemes of thinking about the history, the society and the citizenship that permeate the vision of these actors and agencies about curriculum and teaching. This scheme or model was developed using a methodological triangulation based on documentary analysis, the use of questionnaires and interviews. This work has allowed identifying five curriculum ideologies: neoliberal, conservative, and liberal, plus two critical ideologies, the critical-disciplinary and critical-pedagogical. These five ideologies are described in terms of how they conceive the different dimension contained in Social Studies curriculum. Finally, using this model, it analyze which ideologies have prevailed, which have been considered, and which ones have been excluded from major national or official references for teaching Social Studies: the national curriculum and the standardized tests used to evaluate the schools, the teachers and students in this learning area. In order to accomplish this, it analyzes the three latest versions of common curriculum and the two major standardized tests: the ones from the Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación (SIMCE), and the Prueba de Selección Universitaria (PSU). One of the main conclusions of this research is that the chilean State promotes two competing and contradictory curriculum messages in Social Studies. The first one, publicly negotiated and defined, states that the main purpose of Social Studies, is that students understand their society and develop civic skills. And the second one, defined behind closed doors, where pedagocial and disciplinary criteria are subordinate to priorities of statistical nature, that reduce learning of Social Studies, to the memorization of information and the development of an encyclopedic knowledge.
Date of Award29 Nov 2013
Original languageSpanish
SupervisorAgnes Marta Boixader Corominas (Director)

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