Contextualització i anàlisis de les eleccions de 18 de novembre 1990 a la R.S. de Bòsnia i Hercegovina.

Student thesis: Doctoral thesis


This thesis is an analysis of the historic context in which the elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 1990 year, were done and, at the same time the analysis of it results. It's important to know that the principal primary and secondary sources come from former Yugoslavia. Also this study contains a big date base of originals documents, which a lot of them are unpublished, and translated from the Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian language to the Catalan.
The 18th November elections represent the end of a long historic process which began at the end of the 2nd world war and the constitution the titoista regime in 1945 through general elections. At large of this period there is a purpose from the party, League of Yugoslavs Communists (SKJ), to develop a Yugoslavian federal state project which was based on the slogan "brotherhood and unity" (bratsvo i jedinstvo) in the idea to gather all the nations who composed Yugoslavia. The last constitution (1974) implicated a decentralisation as economic as political and this situation was very similar than a confederation.
In 1980 the marshal Josip Broz, Tito, died. The economic crisis was public thing and aggravated in the next ten years, in the 80's, and at last it reverberated on the policy This situation confronted the continuist sector (Slovenia) against the reformist sector (Serbia). The first would like the total confederation and the second would like the change to the centralist system.
In January 1990 took a place the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the SKJ. It was the last try to find a solution but it failure and adjournment sine die opened the possibility to the republics to do reforms in theirs constitutions and to start a free and multiparty electoral process.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina it was more complicated than the rest because this republic was multiethnic. In July the Bosnian parliament agreed the date of 18th November how an elections day. At the same day Bosnian people elected the seven members of the collective presidency, the two chambers of the Parliament, the Sarajevo's City Parliament and the 109 Op tina's Parliaments.
All the results were favourable, and for a long majority, to the nationalist parties who represented the three constitutional nationalities in the republic: SDA (Muslims), SDS (Serbs) and HDZ (Croats). But before the elections the opinion-poll didn't anticipate this victory.
The detailed analyse demonstrate that different factors influenced in the electorate, in special three of them: the national composition of every city or village; a postitoist policy who try to weaken the Bosnian political cupola of the SKJ, and created some judicial cases ("afers"); and, at last, the fragmentation of the SKJ in four or more parties. (SK-SDP, SRSJ, SSO i DSS).
But these results are anything more. They are the chronological linking of events who started in 1945 year: the birth of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia but at the same time the denial of the Bosnian people; the yugoslavism's failure who never rooted in the people's mentality how a identity; the combination of the economic and political crisis created by the "afers" and they brought about political leaders change in the more difficult moment; and at the end the multiparty elections who opened, in theory, new perspectives. It's necessary to add the world's situation after the Berlin's wall failed and with it the communist regimes in Europe.
The consequences of the elections became at few time. The nationalist coalition of the three parties was dissolved in less a year
And in April 1992 the elections opened doors for a war not for a democracy.
Date of Award30 Apr 2009
Original languageSpanish
SupervisorFrancisco Jose Veiga Rodriguez (Director)

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