© 2018 International Association for Research in L1-Education. Empirical studies pertaining to working on grammar at school and its effects have not been the focus of L1 research in recent years. For instance, none of the current international large-scale studies investigates grammar learning. This might be the result of widespread doubts about the benefits of grammar learning for students, but-however justified one may consider such doubts to be-they should not lead researchers to neglect this topic. To be fair, research in the field has probably been hindered by the fact that there is virtually no exchange about findings across di-verse linguistic regions, so that empirical results which emerged in one country have seldom been recognized in other countries. Variation across linguistic regions can be found not only in research results but also in research questions-a situa-tion which one may consider tolerable in itself but which constitutes a problem when lack of communication between researchers on grammar learning and grammar instruction leaves a real gap, as is true in this case. This special issue aims to offer an international overview of empirical research on grammatical learning at school within the context of L1 education (including learning about L1 grammar outside of L1 lessons, but excluding foreign language learning), and to deepen it by discussing recent approaches. Thus, the special issue is intended to provide a stimulus for further research on the subject and a starting point for the dissemination of international research into local research communiies.