Introduction: After the introduction of the laparoscopic approach in adrenal surgery, this technique has become the gold standard in surgical adrenal diseases. Nevertheless, comparative studies with open surgery are scarce and the impact of laparoscopic techniques on these diseases is unknown. Objective: To evaluate our experience of adrenal surgery over a 14-year period, before and after the introduction of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and to analyze the influence of this technique on the surgical management of adrenal diseases. Patients and method: From January 1990 to June 2004, 78 patients underwent adrenalectomy. Between 1990 and 1998, open adrenalectomy was performed in 24 patients, while between 1999 and 2004, 54 patients underwent the laparoscopic approach and 1 underwent open surgery. Data for the open group were retrospectively reviewed while those for the laparoscopic group were prospectively registered in the advanced laparoscopic surgery database of Hospital Sant Pau (HSP). Results: The mean age was 47 years (16-75) in the open group and was 49 years (17-77) (p = NS) in the laparoscopic group. Distribution by surgical indication was similar in both periods concerning primary hyperaldosteronism, hypercortisolism, and pheochromocytoma, with a significant increase in surgical cases indicated by malignancy (1 vs 4) or incidentaloma (2 vs 13) (p<.001). Operating time was reduced from 150 min (65-210) in the open group to 90 min (30-300) in the laparoscopic group (p<.01). Morbidity was also reduced (20% vs 6%, p<.01). The size of lesions resected by open or laparoscopic surgery (4 cm [0.4-16] vs 3.5 cm [1.2-14]) was similar. The mean length of hospital stay was reduced from 8 days (3-13) to 3 days (2-12) (p<.01). The number of adrenalectomies performed in HSP was 24 in the first period (1990-1997) vs 40 in the second (1998-2004). This represented an increase from 3/year to 6.6/year mainly due to the increase in the number of incidentalomas. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach has improved immediate surgical results (operating time, morbidity, and length of hospital stay). There was a clear increase in the number of adrenalectomies, and especially of incidentalomas, due to improved diagnostic techniques and the availability of a less aggressive approach.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2005|
- Laparoscopic surgery
- Primary hyperaldosteronism