In this chapter it is pointed out the scarce information on clinical mycobacteriology included in the current program of the Clinical Microbiology specialty and the needs of a more prolonged and specific formation in this field. The current Mycobacteriology laboratory is an excellent model to evaluate the impact, value and limitations of the new diagnostic techniques. The laboratory of Mycobacterology can currently offer excellent tools for the diagnosis and control of the infections caused by mycobacterias. The current laboratory is inconceivable without a close collaboration among microbiologists, clinicians and epidemiologists. Only in this collaborative scenario where the technology is open and receptive to resolution of xlinical problems we will be able to educate our spaecialists in the future. Probably there is not any other area in the clinical laboratory where the technical and professional competences of the microbiologists are so well defined and limited.