Climate change is widely recognised as serious threat along the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Basin, where increased erosion patterns, decreased sediment discharge, intensification of floods, saltwater intrusion and loss of biodiversity increase vulnerability. These issues are of particular concern for the Ebro Delta. This article examines the vulnerability of the Spanish Ebro Delta to climate change effects using existing studies, projections, and interviews. The aim is to identify possible options for climate change adaptation in order to moderate the vulnerability to problematic conditions. The results show that to date human management has had a higher impact on this area than climate change. It was also shown that the majority of interviewees recommend the softest option for adaptation, the one that is most in harmony with the nature. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.