Voltammetric electronic tongue for the simultaneous determination of three benzodiazepines

Anna Herrera-Chacón, Farzad Torabi, Farnoush Faridbod, Jahan B. Ghasemi, Andreu González-Calabuig, Manel del Valle*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The presented manuscript reports the simultaneous detection of a ternary mixture of the benzodiazepines diazepam, lorazepam, and flunitrazepam using an array of voltammetric sensors and the electronic tongue principle. The electrodes used in the array were selected from a set of differently modified graphite epoxy composite electrodes; specifically, six electrodes were used incorporating metallic nanoparticles of Cu and Pt, oxide nanoparticles of CuO and WO3, plus pristine electrodes of epoxy-graphite and metallic Pt disk. Cyclic voltammetry was the technique used to obtain the voltammetric responses. Multivariate examination using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) justified the choice of sensors in order to get the proper discrimination of the benzodiazepines. Next, a quantitative model to predict the concentrations of mixtures of the three benzodiazepines was built employing the set of voltammograms, and was first processed with the Discrete Wavelet Transform, which fed an artificial neural network response model. The developed model successfully predicted the concentration of the three compounds with a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 0.034 and 0.106 for the training and test subsets, respectively, and coefficient of correlation R ≥ 0.938 in the predicted vs. expected concentrations comparison graph.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5002
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2019


  • Artificial neural networks
  • Diazepam
  • Electronic tongue
  • Flunitrazepam
  • Lorazepam
  • Nanoparticle modifiers


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