Virological failure to raltegravir in Spain: Incidence, prevalence and clinical consequences

José Ramón Santos, José Luis Blanco, Mar Masiá, Félix Gutiérrez, María Jesús Pérez-Elías, José Antonio Iribarren, Lluis Force, Antonio Antela, Hernando Knobel, Miguel Salavert, Juan Carlos López Bernaldo De Quirós, María Pino, Roger Paredes, Bonaventura Clotet, Isabel Bravo, Javier Martínez-Picado, John F. Rojas, José M. Gatell, Alberto Díaz, Carolina GutiérrezJuan Carlos Galán, Santiago Moreno, Maialen Ibarguren, Pilar Barrufet, Elena Losada, Antonio Aguilera, Alicia Gonzalez, José Miguel Molina, Ana Carrero

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prevalence and clinical consequences of virological failure (VF) to raltegravir-based regimens in Spain. Methods: A multicentre, retrospective, observational study was performed in 10 tertiary hospitals (January 2006 to June 2013). The study included HIV-1-infected patients with loss of virological suppression (LVS; two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL) while receiving raltegravir. VF and low-level viraemia (LLV) were defined as two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥200 copies/mL and 50 to <200 copies/mL, respectively. Integrase strand-transfer inhibitor resistance was investigated at LVS. During the 48 weeks following LVS, recorded data included clinical characteristics, treatment discontinuations, AIDS-associated events and deaths. Effectiveness of therapy following LVS was evaluated by ITT and PP. Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of efficacy. Results: Of the 15009 HIV-infected patients in participating centres, 2782 (18.5%) had received raltegravir-based regimens. Of those, 192 (6.9%), 125 (4.5%) and 67 (2.4%) experienced LVS, VF and LLV, respectively. The incidence of VF was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.1) per 100 patients/year. The prevalence of VF was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.8%-5.3%). Integrase-associated mutations were found in 78.8% of patients with integrase genotyping results available. High-level resistance to dolutegravir was not observed. Salvage therapy failed in 34.1% of patients; progression to AIDS/death occurred in 8.3% during the first year following LVS. The latter was associated with intravenous drug use, time on raltegravir and lower CD4+ count nadir in patients who started raltegravirbased treatments as salvage regimens. Conclusions: VF with raltegravir is infrequent, but often associated with major clinical complications in treatment-experienced patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3087-3095
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


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