Violence in environmental conflicts: the need for a multidimensional approach

Grettel Navas, Sara Mingorria, Bernardo Aguilar-González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


© 2018, Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. Although studies on environmental conflicts have engaged with the subject of violence, a multidimensional approach has been lacking. Using data from 95 environmental conflicts in Central America, we show how different forms of violence appear and overlap. We focus on direct, structural, cultural, slow, and ecological forms of violence. Results suggest that the common understanding of violence in environmental conflicts as a direct event in time and space is only the tip of the iceberg and that violence can reach not only environmental defenders, but also communities, nature, and the sustainability of their relations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)649-660
JournalSustainability Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


  • Central America
  • Environmental Justice Atlas (EJATLAS)
  • Environmental conflict
  • Multidimensional violence
  • Resistance


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