We previously described an HIV-1-infected individual who developed resistance to vicriviroc (VCV), an investigational CCR5 antagonist, during 28 weeks of therapy (Tsibris AM et al., J. Virol. 82:8210-8214, 2008). To investigate the decay of VCV resistance mutations, a standard clonal analysis of full-length env (gp160) was performed on plasma HIV-1 samples obtained at week 28 (the time of VCV discontinuation) and at three subsequent time points (weeks 30, 42, and 48). During 132 days, VCV-resistant HIV-1 was replaced by VCV-sensitive viruses whose V3 loop sequences differed from the dominant pretreatment forms. A deep-sequencing analysis showed that the week 48 VCV-sensitive V3 loop form emerged from a preexisting viral variant. Enfuvirtide was added to the antiretroviral regimen at week 30; by week 48, enfuvirtide treatment selected for either the G36D or N43D HR-1 mutation. Growth competition experiments demonstrated that viruses incorporating the dominant week 28 VCVresistant env were less fit than week 0 viruses in the absence of VCV but more fit than week 48 viruses. This week 48 fitness deficit persisted when G36D was corrected by either site-directed mutagenesis or week 48 gp41 domain swapping. The correction of N43D, in contrast, restored fitness relative to that of week 28, but not week 0, viruses. Virus entry kinetics correlated with observed fitness differences; the slower entry of enfuvirtide-resistant viruses corrected to wild-type rates in the presence of enfuvirtide. These findings suggest that while VCV and enfuvirtide select for resistance mutations in only one env subunit, gp120 and gp41 coevolve to maximize viral fitness under sequential drug selection pressures. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.