Vertical force, magnetic stiffness and damping for levitating type-II superconductors

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The analytical expressions for the vertical force experienced by a superconducting cylinder situated above a cylindrical permanent magnet are derived within the framework of the critical-state model. The force, with an appropiate normalization, depends on a single parameter, the penetration field of the superconductor, which is proportional to its critical-current density. The results are applied to calculate the vertical magnetic stiffness and damping, from which the conditions for achieving a stable equilibrium of the system and the characteristics of the hysteretic losses associated to small displacements of the superconductor are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-52
JournalPhysica C: Superconductivity and its Applications
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 1996


  • Applications of high-T superconductors c
  • Levitation
  • Magnetization


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