Copyright ©ERS 2015. The medical records of 170 adult patients who underwent lung transplantation between January 2010 and December 2012 were reviewed to assess the incidence, causative organisms, risk factors and outcomes of post-operative pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. 20 (12%) patients suffered 24 episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The condition was associated with mean increases of 43 days in mechanical ventilation and of 35 days in hospital stay, and significantly higher hospital mortality (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.2-25.1). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (eight out of 12 patients were multidrug-resistant) was the most common pathogen, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (one out of five patients produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases). Gastroparesis occurred in 55 (32%) patients and was significantly associated with pneumonia (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.2-17.2). Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis was associated with a mean increase of 28 days in mechanical ventilation and 30.5 days in hospital stay, but was not associated with higher mortality (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-3.2). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (six out of 16 patients were multidrug resistant) was the most common pathogen, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (three out of 14 patients produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase). Patients with gastroparesis also had more episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (40% versus 12%, p<0.001). In conclusion, ventilator-associated pneumonia following lung transplantation increased mortality. Preventing gastroparesis probably decreases the risk of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. Multidrugresistant bacteria frequently cause post-lung-transplantation pneumonia and tracheobronchitis.