© Cambridge University Press 2016. This work analyses the changes that caprine spermatozoa undergo during in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured prepubertal goat oocytes and their relationship with IVF outcome, in order to obtain an effective model that allows prediction of in vitro fertility on the basis of semen assessment. The evolution of several sperm parameters (motility, viability and acrosomal integrity) during IVF and their relationship with three IVF outcome criteria (total penetration, normal penetration and cleavage rates) were studied in a total of 56 IVF replicates. Moderate correlation coefficients between some sperm parameters and IVF outcome were observed. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted that considered three grouping of sperm parameters as potential explanatory variables of the three IVF outcome criteria. The proportion of IVF outcome variation that can be explained by the fitted models ranged from 0.62 to 0.86, depending upon the trait analysed and the variables considered. Seven out of 32 sperm parameters were selected as partial covariates in at least one of the nine multiple regression models. Among these, progressive sperm motility assessed immediately after swim-up, the percentage of dead sperm with intact acrosome and the incidence of acrosome reaction both determined just before the gamete co-culture, and finally the proportion of viable spermatozoa at 17 h post-insemination were the most frequently selected sperm parameters. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of these models must be confirmed in a larger sample size experiment.