Vanadate, at concentrations between 0.5 and 2 mM, rapidly decreased the basal level of P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 188.8.131.52) mRNA and blocked the dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt2CAMP)-induced increase in enzyme mRNA in both FTO-2B and H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. The concentration of vanadate necessary to inhibit the expression of this gene was similar to that required for the vanadate-mediated activation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. To determine whether vanadate could inhibit PEPCK gene transcription, a series of chimeric genes containing several deletions in the P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter between -550 and -68 was linked to the structural genes for either amino-3-glycosyl phosphotransferase (neo) or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and introduced into hepatoma cells using three methods: (a) infection with a Moloney murine leukemia virus-based retrovirus, (b) transfection and stable selection for neo expression, or (c) transient expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. In FTO-2B hepatoma cells infected with retrovirus, vanadate rapidly (within 1 h) inhibited transcription of the PEPCK-neo gene and blocked induction of gene expression caused by the addition of either Bt2CAMP or dexamethasone to the cells. Vanadate was not a general transcription inhibitor since, it like insulin, stimulated the expression of the c-fos gene. Also, the inhibitory effect of vanadate was rapidly reversible in FTO-2B cells since PEPCK gene expression could be stimulated by Bt2CAMP and dexamethasone after removal of vanadate. A series of 5′ deletions in the P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter (-550 to +73) was ligated to the structural gene for neo and stably transfected into hepatoma cells. Sequences responsive to vanadate were detected between -109 and -68. This result was confirmed using H4IIE hepatoma cells transiently expressing the PEPCK-CAT gene. The most likely target for vanadate in that region of the P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter is cAMP regulatory element 1 which maps from -91 to -84. A comparison of the inhibitory effects of insulin and vanadate in this system indicated a major difference in the site of action of these two compounds on PEPCK gene transcription.
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Aug 1990|