Validity and measurement invariance of the Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ) in nursing staff

Eva Penelo*, Gabriel J. Estévez-Guerra, Emilio Fariña-López*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Aims and objectives: To study the internal structure and measurement invariance of the Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire and to compare perceptions, experience and training, regarding use of physical restraint on the older people between nursing staff working in hospitals and nursing homes. Background: Physical restraint of patients is still common in many countries, and thus, it is important to study the attitudes of nursing staff. One of the most common tools used to assess perceptions regarding its use is the Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire. However, gaps exist in its internal structure and measurement invariance across different groups of respondents. Design: Cross-sectional multicentre survey. Methods: Data were collected from nurses working in eight Spanish hospitals and 19 nursing homes. All registered nurses and nurse assistants (N = 3,838) were contacted, of whom 1,635 agreed to participate. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine internal structure and measurement invariance of Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire, after which scale scores and other measures of experience and training were compared between hospital-based (n = 855) and nursing homes-based (n = 780) nurses. Results: The Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire showed three invariant factors across type of facility, and also professional category and sex. Nursing staff working in both types of facility scored similarly; prevention of therapy disruption and prevention of falls were rated more important. Nurses working in nursing homes reported using restraint “many times” more frequently (52.9% vs. 38.6%), less severe lack of training (18.2% vs. 58.7%) being perceived as more adequate (33.4% vs. 17.7%), than hospital-based nurses. Conclusions: These findings support Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire as a valid and reliable tool for assessing the importance given to the use of physical restraint in the older people by nursing professionals, regardless of the setting being studied. Relevance to clinical practice: The information would help design more specifically the physical restraint training of nursing staff and to plan institutional interventions aimed at reducing its use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e1179-e1188
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Issue number5-6
Early online date4 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • measurement invariance
  • nursing
  • older people
  • physical restraint


Dive into the research topics of 'Validity and measurement invariance of the Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ) in nursing staff'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this