Heat treatments play a critical role in ensuring the safety and preservation of milk, but it can affect its nutritional and sensory properties. The present paper proposes the use of a portable system based on fluorescence spectroscopy as an alternative method for the quantification of four thermal damage markers at once (hydroxymethylfurfural, sulfhydryl groups, ascorbic acid, and riboflavin). The obtained prediction models using autofluorescent compounds (tryptophan, dityrosine, Maillard compounds, and riboflavin), validated with skimmed milk processed under several industrial conditions, granted the development of a portable and/or online system, allowing for the real-time monitoring of thermal damage and control of the heat treatment process. The results of this study will certainly contribute to the development of new process analytical technologies for the dairy industry, enabling quality control and adjustment of the manufacturing process to ensure safe and high-quality products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number780
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2024


  • fluorescent compounds
  • heat damage
  • milk
  • prediction
  • quantification
  • spectrofluorometer


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