The light-dark adaptation reactions of a set of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) mutants that affect function and color of the chromophore were examined by using visible absorption spectroscopy. The absorbance spectra of the mutants Arg-82→ Ala (Gin), Asp-85 → Ala (Asn, Glu), Tyr-185 → Phe, and Asp-212 → Ala (Asn, Glu) were measured at different pH values during and after illumination. None of these mutants exhibited a normal dark-light adaptation, which in wild-type bR causes a red shift of the visible absorption maximum from 558 nm (dark-adapted bR) to 568 nm (light-adapted bR). Instead a reversible light reaction occurs in the Asp-85 and Asp-212 mutants from a blue form with λmax near 600 nm to a pink form with λmax near 480 nm. This light-induced shift explains the appearance of a reversed light adaptation previously observed for the Asp-212 mutants. In the CMC of the Tyr-185 and Arg-82 mutants, light causes a purple-to-blue transformation similar to the effect of lowering the pH. However, the blue forms observed in these mutants are not identical to those formed by acid titration or deionization of wild-type bR. It is suggested that in all of these mutants, the chromophore has lost the ability to undergo the normal 13-cis,15-syn to all-trans,15-anti light-driven isomerization, which occurs in native bR. Instead these mutants may have as stable forms all-trans,syn and 13-cis,anti chromophores, which are not allowed in native bR, except transiently. (.
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 1990|
- Kinetic spectroscopy
- Proton transport
- Purple membrane
- Retinal isomerization