Using ST2 in cardiovascular patients: A review

Lori B. Daniels, Antoni Bayes-Genis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


© 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Biomarkers have emerged as indispensable tools for diagnosis and prognostication in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, and several are now standard of care. New markers are constantly being developed, but few are able to significantly improve upon already established markers. ST2 is a marker of cardiomyocyte stress and fibrosis, which provides incremental value to natriuretic peptides for risk stratification of patients across a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Based upon the totality of data, measurement of ST2 is now recommended for additive risk stratification in patients with acute or ambulatory heart failure in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association joint guidelines. Looking forward, ST2 levels may be useful for tailoring medical therapy in those with or at risk for developing heart failure. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical studies that led to the endorsement of ST2 as a cardiovascular prognostic marker, and provides insight into the application of ST2 now and in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-539
JournalFuture Cardiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • biomarkers
  • heart failure
  • prognosis
  • risk assessment
  • ST2


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