The aim of this study was to develop sustained release microspheres of capsicum oleoresin as an alternative to in-feed additives. Two spray-cooling technologies, a fluidized air bed using a spray nozzle system and a vibrating nozzle system placed on top of a cooling tower, were used to microencapsulate 20% of capsicum oleoresin in a hydrogenated, rapeseed oil matrix. Microencapsulation was intended to reduce the irritating effect of capsicum oleoresin and to control its release kinetics during consumption by the animal. Particles produced by the fluidized air bed process (batch F1) ranged from 180 to 1,000 μm in size. The impact of particle size on release of capsaicin, the main active compound of capsicum oleoresin, was studied after sieving batch F1 to obtain 4 formulations: F1a (180 to 250 μm), F1b (250 to 500 μm), F1c (500 to 710 μm), and F1d (710 to 1,000 μm). The vibrating nozzle system can produce a monodispersive particle size distribution. In this study, particles of 500 to 710 μm were made (batch F2). The release kinetics of the formulations was estimated in a flow-through cell dissolution apparatus (CFC). The time to achieve a 90% dissolution value (T90%) of capsaicin for subbatches of F1 increased with the increase in particle size (P < 0.05), with the greatest value of 165.5 ± 13.2 min for F1d. The kinetics of dissolution of F2 was slower than all F1 subbatches, with a T90% of 422.7 ± 30.0 min. Nevertheless, because CFC systems are ill suited for experiments with solid feed and thus limit their predictive values, follow-up studies were performed on F1c and F2 using an in vitro dynamic model that simulated more closely the digestive environment. For both formulations a lower quantity of capsaicin dialyzed was recorded under fed condition vs. fasting condition with 46.9% ± 1.0 vs. 74.7% ± 2.7 for F1c and 32.4% ± 1.4 vs. 44.2% ± 2.6 for F2, respectively. This suggests a possible interaction between capsaicin and the feed matrix. Moreover, 40.4 ± 3.9% of the total capsaicin intake in F2 form was dialyzed after 8 h of digestion when feed had been granulated vs. 32.4 ± 1.4% when feed had not been granulated, which suggests that the feed granulation process could lead to a partial degradation of the microspheres and to a limitation of the sustained release effect. This study demonstrates the potential and the limitations of spray-cooling technology to encapsulate feed additives. ©2007 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Journal of Animal Science|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Oct 2007|
- Capsicum oleoresin
- Spray cooling