Objective - To determine whether correlations exist between viremia with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and serum antibody profiles and between detection of PCV2 in nasal cavities and viremia of pigs from farms with and without postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Animals - 495 pigs, ranging from the late nursery stage to the early grower-finisher stage of production. Procedure - Serum antibodies to PCV2 were studied with an ELISA that detects the ORF2 viral protein. Nasal swab specimens and serum samples were tested with a PCV2-specific PCR assay. Results - PCV2 DNA and serum antibodies to PCV2 were detected in pigs from all farms, although in different proportions. Overall, PCV2 DNA was detected in greater percentages in serum samples and nasal swab specimens of pigs from farms with PMWS. Although viral DNA was detected in both serum samples and nasal swab specimens, PCV2 detection in nasal swab specimens was higher than in serum samples of pigs from all farms. Serum antibodies to PCV2 were detected in a greater percentage of pigs from farms with PMWS, compared with farms without PMWS. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - A high prevalence of PCV2 infection was found in pigs from farms with and without PMWS. Besides the presence of PCV2, unknown additional factors may be necessary to induce the full expression of PMWS.