Urban form and the ecological footprint of commuting. The case of Barcelona

Ivan Muñiz, Anna Galindo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

167 Citations (Scopus)


One of the most controversial ideas in the debate on urban sustainability is that urban sprawl causes problems of ecological stress. This widespread assumption has been tested by measuring the ecological footprint left by commuters in the 163 municipalities of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR). This paper explores the determinants of the ecological footprint of commuting municipal variability by using the following regressors: population density, accessibility, average household income, and job ratio. The results confirm that urban form appears as the main determinant of ecological footprint variation among the municipalities of BMR. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-514
JournalEcological Economics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005


  • Commuting
  • Ecological footprint
  • Suburbanization
  • Urban form


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