Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mineral metabolism disturbances appear to contribute to the high mortality. A CKD-mineral bone disorder (CK-MBD has recently been defined as a systemic disorder manifested by one or a combination of abnormalities in bone biopsy, laboratory parameters and/or vascular or other soft-tissue calcifications. New available treatments have contributed to move from the former treatment paradigm of renal osteodystrophy to CKD-MBD management, beyond mere control of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and trying to improve cardiovascular or survival outcomes. Thus, the recommended multidisciplinary approach among nurses dieticians and clinicians, helping not only through dietary assessment but also through education, behaviour control and by increasing the patient's personal motivation, may have additional important benefits. This article will review the current therapeutic approach with phosphate binders including the latest developments, vitamin D derivatives and selective vitamin D receptor activators as well as the new calcimimetics, all used in the treatment of this systemic disease. © 2009 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
- Chronic kidney disease
- Phosphorus binders
- Secondary hyperparathyroidism
- Vascular calcification
- Vitamin D