© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. A significant proportion of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) fail to achieve complete remission or will relapse later on after achieving it. Prognosis for relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML patients remains discouraging, with the main curative option still relying on hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for those who are eligible. Beyond morphological bone marrow and peripheral blood assessment, evaluation of patient performance status and comorbidities, as well as genetic/molecular characterization, is crucial to make an accurate diagnosis and prognosis, which will be useful to select the most appropriate treatment. Emerging strategies are mainly focusing on the development of immune- and molecular-based approaches. Novel targeted therapies are generally well tolerated, potentially allowing them to be administered alone or in combination with classical chemotherapy agents. Enrolment in clinical trials should be considered first option for R/R AML patients, either as a bridge to HSCT or to benefit from novel therapies that eventually may prolong survival and improve quality of life. An Iberian expert panel has reviewed the recent advances in the management of R/R AML with the aim to develop updated evidence and expert opinion-based recommendations.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Targeted therapies