© 2018 The CD45RA T cell depletion (TCD) method has been used to deplete naive T cells, preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) but preserving memory cells, providing immediate functional T cells with anti-infection, antileukemia, and antirejection effects. We describe a series of 25 consecutive high-risk patients with leukemia who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) with CD45RA TCD. Each patient received 2 cell products: 1 created by CD34 positive selection and the other through CD45RA depletion from the CD34 negative fraction by a CliniMACS device. CD45RA-depleted haplo-HSCT was well tolerated, with rapid engraftment and low risk of severe acute GVHD and chronic GVHD. Although this treatment achieved a good control of viral reactivations, such as cytomegalovirus and adenovirus, we observed an unexpectedly high rate of limbic encephalitis due to human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6; 8 cases). Characteristically, the infection appeared early in almost all patients, just after the engraftment. Although no patient died from encephalitis, 1 patient showed neuropsychological sequelae, and another experienced secondary graft failure just after the HHV-6 reactivation.
- Haploidentical transplantation
- Human herpesvirus-6