We compared the efficacy of ampicillin, both alone and in combination with gentamicin given once a day (q.d.) or three times a day (t.i.d.), in the treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Ampicillin was administered by using humanlike pharmacokinetics that simulated the profiles of this drug in human serum. An open one-compartment mathematical model developed in this study was used to estimate the decreasing doses administered with a computer-controlled infusion pump that simulated in rabbits the human serum pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 108 CFU of Enterococcus faecalis J4 (MICs and MBCs of ampicillin and gentamicin, 2 and 128 and 16 and 64 μg/ml, respectively) and were treated for 3 days with ampicillin alone or in combination with gentamicin at 2 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously t.i.d. or at 6 mg/kg subcutaneously q.d. The serum ampicillin levels and pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin intravenously. The results of therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis J4 showed that the residual bacterial concentration in aortic valve vegetation was significantly lower in the animals treated with combinations of ampicillin plus gentamicin given q.d. or t.i.d. than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.01). The dosing interval of gentamicin did not significantly affect (q.d. versus t.i.d.; P = 0.673) the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin.
|Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
|Published - 1 Jan 1996