Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a rare, life-threatening clinical syndrome resulting from sinusoidal congestion, and it is characterized by hepatomegaly, ascites, weight gain, and jaundice. The frequency of this condition after liver transplantation (LT) is low, but when SOS is severe and refractory to medical therapy, the ultimate solution is retransplantation. We describe a patient with SOS after LT who was successfully treated by the placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Although information on this approach is scarce because of the low incidence of SOS in LT patients, we review the available literature on treating this condition with a TIPS. On the basis of the reported information and our patient's outcome, we suggest that prompt TIPS placement can be considered for SOS when medical treatment fails. Nonetheless, a formal assessment and prospective studies are needed to confidently indicate TIPS placement in this situation. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.