Toxic and genotoxic effects of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


© 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis. Graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are widely used in nanomedicine, and other fields, due to their unique physicochemical properties including high tensile strength, ultra-light weight, thermal and chemical stability, and reliable semi-conductive electronic properties. Although extensive amount of data exist describing their adverse effects including potential genotoxicity, few studies using gene mutation detection approaches in mammalian cells are available, which represents an important gap for risk estimations. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of graphene or MWCNT [as pure, carboxyl (COOH) functionalized, and amide (NH2) functionalized] on cytotoxicity, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, gene expression changes, and gene mutation induction in L5178Y/Tk+/–3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line. Although some adverse effects were observed at concentrations of 350 and 450 µg/ml, which are excessive and not environmentally relevant levels, no marked effects were detected at concentrations of 250 µg/ml and lower. This is the first study reporting cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and gene expression findings in the mouse lymphoma cell line for graphene and different MWCNT forms at high concentrations; however, the biological relevance of these observations needs to be assessed following chronic in vivo exposure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)645-660
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2018


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