Towards smart learning spaces in Catalan schools: teachers’ perceptions of change

Guillermo Bautista Pérez, María José Rubio Hurtado, Angelina Sánchez-Martí*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Moving towards Smart Learning Spaces (SLS) requires reconsideration of the school environment using a multi-dimensional approach that considers pedagogical, environmental and technological aspects. However, learning spaces have not changed that much. New designs and remodelling of educational contexts rarely are evidence-based and rarely incorporate teachers’ insights, knowledge and perceptions of environments in which learning occurs. This paper explores the perceptions of and attitudes towards change of teachers working in preschool, primary and compulsory secondary education in Catalonia regarding SLS. To achieve this, a survey was carried out with 847 students. After checking the instrument’s validity and reliability, univariate and bivariate analysis were followed by two-step cluster analysis. Teachers had a limited perception of their classrooms’ actual suitability as SLS, which impedes further pedagogical reflection about change. Irrespective of actual classrooms conditions, three groups of teachers with different degrees of favourableness towards SLS were identified. These profiles bring to light contradictory perceptions regarding both constructivist, student-centred pedagogical assemblages involving environmental changes and certain conceptions and control practices that are more typical of traditional teaching styles. Recommendations can inform the decision-making of management teams and teachers about re-conceptualizing the learning space and their interventions in schools.

Original languageEnglish
JournalLearning Environments Research
Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2021


  • Classroom design
  • School innovation
  • Smart learning spaces
  • Teachers’ perceptions


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