© 2019 American Physical Society. An intrinsic electron injection model for two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials, like graphene, is presented and its coupling to a recently developed quantum time-dependent Monte Carlo simulator for electron devices, based on the use of stochastic Bohmian conditional wave functions, is explained. The simulator is able to capture the full (dc, ac, transient, and noise) performance of 2D electron devices. In particular, we demonstrate that the injection of electrons with positive and negative kinetic energies is mandatory when investigating high-frequency performance of Dirac materials with Klein tunneling, while traditional models dealing with holes (defined as the lack of electrons) can lead to unphysical results. We show that the number of injected electrons is bias dependent, implying that an extra charge is required to get self-consistent results. Interestingly, we provide a successful comparison with experimental dc data. Finally, we predict that a genuine high-frequency signature due to a roughly constant electron injection rate in 2D linear band electron devices (which is missing in 2D parabolic band ones) can be used as a band structure tester.
Zhan, Z., Kuang, X., Colomés, E., Pandey, D., Yuan, S., & Oriols, X. (2019). Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo simulation of electron devices with two-dimensional Dirac materials: A genuine terahertz signature for graphene. Physical Review B, 99, . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.99.155412