Thyroid carcinomas of the follicular epithelium: Tumor markers and oncogenes

Francisco Álvarez-Núñez, Josefina Mora, Xavier Matías-Guiu, Silvia Bagué, Alberto de Leiva Hidalgo, Enrique Lerma, Jesus M. Martín-Campos, Xavier Rius, José Rodriguez-Espinosa, Mónica Vilar, Ana Wagner, Juan Ybarra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Several genes control cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Any alteration in the sequence or expression of these genes can cause an uncontrolled growth of the tissue and produce a tumor. Quantitative and qualitative gene expression studies. using genes as tumor markers. are essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of the tumor and its behavior. Oncogenes are genes that stimulate cell growth and have an increased expression. On the contrary, tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell growth and have a decreased expression in tumor cells. To study these tumor markers we apply simple and random molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription and genomic sequencing. In the case of thyroid epithelial neoplasia, tumor markers such as PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1, telomerase, RET/PTC, b-catenine, PAX8/PPAR(1, ciclooxygenase, thyroid stimulating hormonal receptor (TSHR), and thyroglobulin are being investigated. These markers are analized for somatic mutations in the genetic sequence, cromosomical rearrangements, alterations in the promoter zone that affect gene expression, regulation and studies of genes at mRNA level. A deeper study of these markers is deemed to help improve the accuracy of tumor diagnosis, behavior and prognosis. Hence, more effective therapeutic options will be adapted to each individual, eventually reducing hospital costs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-269
JournalMedicina Clinica
Volume121
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Sep 2003

Keywords

  • Differentiated thyroid carcinomas
  • Gen sequence
  • Polymerase chain reaction
  • Reverse transcription
  • Tumor markers

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