© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been a first-line therapy for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer for the last 4 decades. However, this treatment causes serious adverse events in a significant number of patients and a substantial percentage of recurrence episodes. MTBVAC is a live-attenuated vaccine derived from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolate and is currently under evaluation in clinical trials to replace BCG as a tuberculosis vaccine. Here, we describe for the first time the potential of MTBVAC as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo in a preclinical model. MTBVAC colonized human bladder tumor cells to a much greater extent than BCG via a mechanism mediated by macropinocytosis and induced cell growth inhibition after internalization. In vivo testing in an orthotopic murine model of bladder cancer demonstrated a higher antitumor effect of MTBVAC in experimental conditions in which BCG did not work. Our data encourage further studies to support the possible application of MTBVAC as a new immunotherapeutic agent for bladder cancer.