The transmission of yeasts from generation to generation for Drosophila buzzatii was shown to occur vertically through the pupal stage and horizontally during mating. Males and females transmitted yeasts to the opposite sex most often during mating but also during courtship. Yeasts transferred from the male to the female were more often associated with the abdomens of the females, while yeasts transferred from the female to the male were associated with both the head and the abdomen of the male. Mate choice was affected by the previous yeast diet of both males and females. Yeast transmission during courtship and mating represents the potential for parental care because mate choice is affected by previous yeast diet, and progeny development is a function of the yeasts inoculated onto the larval substrate by the adults. © 1988.