The transcriptional coactivator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)γ coactivator-1α and the nuclear receptor PPARα control the expression of glycerol kinase and metabolism genes independently of PPARγ activation in human white adipocytes

Anne Mazzucotelli, Nathalie Viguerie, Claire Tiraby, Jean Sébastien Annicotte, Aline Mairal, Eva Klimcakova, Emmanuelle Lepin, Paul Delmar, Sébastien Dejean, Geneviève Tavernier, Corinne Lefort, Juan Hidalgo, Thierry Pineau, Lluis Fajas, Karine Clément, Dominique Langin

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64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this work was to determine the pattern of genes regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in human adipocytes and the involvement of PPARα and PPARγ in PGC-1α transcriptional action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Primary cultures of human adipocytes were transduced with a PGC-1α adenovirus and treated with PPARγ and PPARα agonists. Variation in gene expression was assessed using pangenomic microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR. To investigate glycerol kinase (GyK), a target of PGC-1α, we measured enzymatic activity and glycerol incorporation into triglycerides. In vivo studies were performed on wild-type and PPARα-/- mice. The GyK promoter was studied using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. RESULTS - Among the large number of genes regulated by PGC-1α independently of PPARγ, new targets involved in metabolism included the gene encoding GyK. The induction of GyK by PGC-1α was observed at the levels of mRNA, enzymatic activity, and glycerol incorporation into triglycerides. PPARα was also upregulated by PGC-1α. Its activation led to an increase in GyK expression and activity. PPARα was shown to bind and activate the GyK promoter. Experiments in mice confirmed the role of PGC-1α and PPARα in the regulation of GyK in vivo. CONCLUSIONS - This work uncovers novel pathways regulated by PGC-1α and reveals that PPARα controls gene expression in human white adipocytes. The induction of GyK by PGC-1α and PPARα may promote a futile cycle of triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid reesterification. © 2007 by the American Diabetes Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2467-2475
JournalDiabetes
Volume56
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2007

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