OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this work was to determine the pattern of genes regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in human adipocytes and the involvement of PPARα and PPARγ in PGC-1α transcriptional action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Primary cultures of human adipocytes were transduced with a PGC-1α adenovirus and treated with PPARγ and PPARα agonists. Variation in gene expression was assessed using pangenomic microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR. To investigate glycerol kinase (GyK), a target of PGC-1α, we measured enzymatic activity and glycerol incorporation into triglycerides. In vivo studies were performed on wild-type and PPARα-/- mice. The GyK promoter was studied using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. RESULTS - Among the large number of genes regulated by PGC-1α independently of PPARγ, new targets involved in metabolism included the gene encoding GyK. The induction of GyK by PGC-1α was observed at the levels of mRNA, enzymatic activity, and glycerol incorporation into triglycerides. PPARα was also upregulated by PGC-1α. Its activation led to an increase in GyK expression and activity. PPARα was shown to bind and activate the GyK promoter. Experiments in mice confirmed the role of PGC-1α and PPARα in the regulation of GyK in vivo. CONCLUSIONS - This work uncovers novel pathways regulated by PGC-1α and reveals that PPARα controls gene expression in human white adipocytes. The induction of GyK by PGC-1α and PPARα may promote a futile cycle of triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid reesterification. © 2007 by the American Diabetes Association.