The Trail Making Test: Association With Other Neuropsychological Measures and Normative Values for Adults Aged 55 Years and Older From a Spanish-Speaking Population-Based Sample

Jordi Llinàs-Reglà, Joan Vilalta-Franch, Secundino López-Pousa, Laia Calvó-Perxas, David Torrents Rodas, Josep Garre-Olmo

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is used as an indicator of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and executive function. The aim of this study was to examine the TMT relationships with several neuropsychological measures and to provide normative data in community-dwelling participants of 55 years and older. A population-based Spanish-speaking sample of 2,564 participants was used. The TMT, Symbol Digit Test, Stroop Color–Word Test, Digit Span Test, Verbal Fluency tests, and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability tapping subtest were administered. Exploratory factor analyses and regression lineal models were used. Normative data for the TMT scores were obtained. A total of 1,923 participants (76.3%) participated, 52.4% were women, and the mean age was 66.5 years (Digit Span = 8.0). The Symbol Digit Test, MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability tapping subtest, Stroop Color–Word Test, and Digit Span Test scores were associated in the performance of most TMT scores, but the contribution of each measure was different depending on the TMT score. Normative tables according to significant factors such as age, education level, and sex were created. Measures of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and visuomotor processing speed were more related to the performance of the TMT-A score, while working memory and inhibition control were mainly associated with the TMT-B and derived TMT scores.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)183-196
    JournalAssessment
    Volume24
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

    Keywords

    • cognition
    • executive function
    • neuropsychological tests
    • psychometrics
    • reference standards
    • Trail Making Test

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