The role of time perspective and mindfulness on life satisfaction in the United States of America, Spain, Poland and Japan: A cross-cultural study

Lening A. Olivera-Figueroa*, Anna Muro, Albert Feliu-Soler, Yuta Chishima, Konrad S. Jankowski, Michael Todd Allen, Richard J. Servatius, Alexander Unger, Julie Papastamatelou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We assessed the cross-cultural role of Time Perspective (TP) tendencies [Past Positive (PP), Past Negative (PN), Present Hedonistic (PH), Present Fatalistic (PF), and Future (F)], the Deviation from a Balanced Time Perspective (DBTP) profile, the Deviation from a Negative Time Perspective (DNTP) profile, and mindfulness on life satisfaction (LS). The sample consisted of psychology undergraduate students (N = 867, MAGE = 20.19, SD = 3.417) in four countries: USA, Spain, Poland and Japan. We used a 17-item short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in all countries. For ensuring measurement invariance, we conducted pairwise CFAs for the ZTPI-17, MAAS and SWLS. Regression analyses showed that PN predicted decreased LS in Poland and Japan. PP predicted increased LS in Spain. F predicted increased LS in Poland. DNTP predicted decreased LS in Poland. Mindfulness predicted decreased LS in Japan and increased LS in USA, Spain and Poland. Moreover, mediation analyses revealed that the DBTP partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and LS in Spain and USA. The DNTP partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and LS in Spain, Poland and Japan (opposite direction). The findings suggest that the association of TP, mindfulness and LS differs across the investigated countries as a function of culture.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
JournalCurrent Psychology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Cross-Cultural
  • Deviation from a Negative Time Perspective (DNTP) coefficient
  • Deviation from the Balanced Time Perspective (DBTP) coefficient
  • Japan
  • Life Satisfaction
  • Mindfulness
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • Time Perspective
  • United States of America (USA)
  • FIT INDEXES
  • VALIDATION
  • ADULTS
  • RELIABILITY
  • SELF
  • BALANCE
  • ATTENTION AWARENESS SCALE
  • CUTOFF VALUES
  • RULES

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