The rise of «human-based enterprises» in Spain: A new paradigm or an inevitable outcome?

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This paper presents a number of ethnographic case study of Spanish so-called "human-base enterprises", since they enhance the human factor as a competitive advantage. These companies do share certain traits: they operate in the knowledge economy, founders are talented young entrepreneurs, knowledge from humanities and arts are usually applied, are flexible and cooperative, apply horizontal management, and do not necessarily pursue profit as their main objective. These companies stand out in opposition to traditional businesses and management models, and human-centered innovation is stressed over classical technological and scientific innovation. However, are these enterprises genuinely groundbreaking? Do they lead a real paradigm shift in management and business organization in our country? Or, instead, are they a logical outcome of flexible production, commodification and the expanding character or late capitalism?
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-542
JournalDocuments d' Analisi Geografica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • Alienation
  • Business creation and destruction
  • Business ethnography
  • Human factor
  • Human resources management
  • Human-based corporations
  • Innovation
  • Intangibles
  • Post-fordism


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