© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. The present study investigates reciprocal associations between positive parenting, parental monitoring, CU traits, and ODD in children assessed at age 3 and again at age 6. Data were collected from a sample of preschoolers (N = 419; 51.58 % female) through diagnostic interviews and questionnaires answered by parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling revealed a bidirectional relationship between poor monitoring and ODD, with poor monitoring at age 3 predicting ODD at age 6 (β = 0.11, p < 0.05), and ODD at age 3 predicting poor monitoring at age 6 (β = 0.10, p < 0.05). While poor monitoring at age 3 predicted CU traits at age 6 (β = 0.11, p < 0.05), CU traits at age 3 predicted positive parenting (β = 0.09, p < 0.05) and ODD (β = 0.13, p < 0.05) at age 6. Results have important implications for early targeted parenting interventions for CU traits and ODD.
- Callous-unemotional traits
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Parenting style
- Structural equation modeling