The power of weak ion-exchange resins assisted by amelogenin for natural remineralization of dental enamel: an in vitro study

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Abstract

This study aims to develop an innovative dental product to remineralize dental enamel by a proper combination of ion-exchange resins as controlled release of mineral ions that form dental enamel, in the presence of amelogenin to guide the appropriate crystal growth. The novel product proposed consists of a combination of ion-exchange resins (weak acid and weak base) individually loaded with the remineralizing ions: Ca 2+, PO 4 3− and F , also including Zn 2+ in a minor amount as antibacterial, together with the protein amelogenin. Such cocktail provides onsite controlled release of the ions necessary for enamel remineralization due to the weak character of the resins and at the same time, a guiding tool for related crystal growth by the indicated protein. Amelogenin protein is involved in the structural development of natural enamel and takes a key role in controlling the crystal growth morphology and alignment at the enamel surface. Bovine teeth were treated by applying the resins and protein together with artificial saliva. Treated teeth were evaluated with nanoindentation, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The innovative material induces the dental remineralization creating a fluorapatite layer with a hardness equivalent to sound enamel, with the appropriate alignment of corresponding nanocrystals, being the fluorapatite more acid resistant than the original mineral. Our results suggest that the new product shows potential for promoting long-term remineralization leading to the inhibition of caries and protection of dental structures.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalOdontology
Early online date11 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Amelogenin
  • Controlled release system
  • Dental caries
  • Enamel remineralization
  • Fluorapatite

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