© The Author(s) 2019. European institutions have shaped the audiovisual media policies of the Old Continent since the advent of private cable and satellite broadcasters in the 1980s. As a result, television—mostly under public ownership—was no longer merely a national and cultural matter, but an economic and European one too, since it affected free competition and the internal market. This breakdown of borders led to the approval of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television by the Council of Europe in 1989, and to the ratification of the Television without Frontiers Directive by the then European Economic Community—now the European Union (EU)—in the same year (Council of Europe 1989).
|Title of host publication||Public Service Broadcasting and Media Systems in Troubled European Democracies|
|Number of pages||24|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2019|