The episodic rise, net growing rate and kinematics of radial faults of the Salinas de Oro diapir using paleoseismological techniques (NE Spain). Salt upwelling versus karstic subsidence

Jesús Guerrero, Gloria Desir, Carles Roqué, M. Zarroca, Ivan Fabregat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearch

Abstract

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. This paper explores the use of trenching and paleoseismological techniques to determine salt flow rates into a salt diapir for the first time in the literature. The Salinas de Oro diapir, located in the northern Spanish Pyrenees, is an oval-shaped Triassic-salt stock that extends vertically for ≫7 km down to the Paleozoic basement. Salt dissolution subsidence and diapir growth are coeval active processes. Karstification is responsible for the development of large sinkholes, a thick caprock and the monocline folding and ring faulting of the Cretaceous and Early Tertiary limestone rim. The evaporite karstic aquifer discharges high-concentration water of up to 137 g/l of total dissolved solids and a conductivity over 200 mS/cm into the Salado Creek, which drains the diapir top. The salinity monitoring of this drainage provides a maximum karstic surface lowering rate of around 2.8 mm/yr. Salt upwelling has caused the 150 m uplift of the annular limestone escarpment and the development of ≫3000 m long radial grabens with up to 90 m of vertical offset that disrupt drainages, displace Quaternary deposits and overprint concentric faults. The 260 cm drag folding of lacustrine facies exposed in a 42 m long and 6.5 m deep trench due to the creep motion of the western radial fault of Azanza Graben yielded a minimum short-term uplift slip rate of 1.75 mm/yr for the last 1485 years and provides a minimum salt supply rate of over 5 mm/yr considering karstification lowering. This value that is several hundred times higher than average, evidence the discontinuous growth of Salinas de Oro diapir.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-222
JournalGeomorphology
Volume342
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • Concentric fault
  • Salt dissolution
  • Trenching
  • Uplift rate

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