There are several varieties of environmentalism. Here the focus is on the environmentalism of poor or indigenous populations involved in resource extraction conflicts around the world. In their struggle to preserve their own livelihoods against mining companies, hydroelectric dams, biomass extraction and land grabbing, and oil and gas exploitation, peasant and indigenous communities have been since the 1980s and 1990s the backbone of the global environmental justice movement. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
- Environmental justice
- Indigenous peoples