Recent research about the decision to vote or abstain finds a causal effect of social networks and social pressure. Yet this literature does not examine how this social pressure is exerted and by whom. This study aims at correcting these shortcomings. Using a two-wave panel survey conducted in Canada, we distinguish between the pressure exerted by friends and the partner and between descriptive and injunctive norms. We find that most people are not subjected to strong injunctive pressure, social pressure is most prominent in the household (between partners), it is mostly descriptive, and it has a powerful effect.
- social pressure