© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Inflammasomes are a large family of multiprotein complexes recognizing pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). This leads to caspase-1 activation, promoting the secretion of mature IL-1β, IL-18 and under certain conditions even induce pyroptosis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is associated with alterations in microbiota composition, inappropriate immune responses and genetic predisposition associated to bacterial sensing and autophagy. Besides their acknowledged role in mounting microbial induced host responses, a crucial role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis was revealed in inflammasome deficient mice. Further, abnormal activation of these functions appears to contribute to the pathology of intestinal inflammation including IBD and colitis-associated cancer. Herein, the current literature implicating the inflammasomes, microbiota and IBD is comprehensively reviewed.
- Colitis-associated cancer