The arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium from barley differentially influences various defense parameters in the non-host sugar beet under co-cultivation

Roghieh Hajiboland*, Noushin Sadeghzadeh, Narges Moradtalab, Nasser Aliasgharzad, Karsten Schweikert, Charlotte Poschenrieder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and non-host species are poorly studied. Particularly scarce is information on members of the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants were co-cultivated with a host species (Hordeum vulgare) in the presence (+AMF) or absence of Rhizophagus intraradices to explore the hypothesis that the presence of an active, pre-established AMF mycelium induces defense responses in the non-host species. Biomass of sugar beet did not respond to the +AMF treatment, while its root exudation of organic acids and phenolic acids was drastically decreased upon co-cultivation with +AMF barley. The most conspicuous effect was observed on a wide range of potential defense parameters being differentially influenced by the +AMF treatment in this non-host species. Antioxidant defense enzymes were activated and the level of endogenous jasmonic acid was elevated accompanied by nitric oxide accumulation and lignin deposition in the roots after long-term +AMF treatment. In contrast, significant reductions in the levels of endogenous salicylic acid and tissue concentration and exudation of phenolic acids indicated that AM fungus hyphae in the substrate did not induce a hypersensitive-type response in the sugar beet roots and downregulated certain chemical defenses. Our results imply that the fitness of this non-host species is not reduced when grown in the presence of an AMF mycelium because of balanced defense costs. Further studies should address the question of whether or not such modulation of defense pattern influences the pest resistance of sugar beet plants under field conditions.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)647-661
Number of pages15
JournalMycorrhiza
Volume30
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2020

Keywords

  • Jasmonic acid
  • Lignin
  • Nitric oxide
  • Non-host species
  • Phenolics metabolism
  • Salicylic acid

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